Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

In the 1940s, Abraham Maslow proposed a theory about motivation that, for the first time, linked human biological needs and human psychology. According to Maslow, humans strive to meet their needs in a predictable order or hierarchy, as shown in figure 3. People’s physical and safety needs must be met before they can focus on their higher-order needs. Next, people need their social and self-esteem needs met. They need to feel loved and accepted as part of a group. Then, they can focus on achievement and gaining the respect of those around them. Only after all those needs are fulfilled can they focus on self-actualization, or achieving their highest potential, through professional growth, education, or other enrichment.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs pyramid. Bottom to top: physical needs: air, water, food, shelter, comfort, temperature. Security needs: protection, security, law, job, health-care. Social needs: belonging, love, family, work groups. Self-esteem needs: achievement, respect from community, reputation. Self actualization: personal growth, fulfilment.
Figure 3. Maslow's hierarchy of needs

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